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Distributor's Link Magazine Summer 2022 / Vol 45 No 4

34 THE DISTRIBUTOR’S

34 THE DISTRIBUTOR’S LINK Guy Avellon Guy Avellon has been in MRO and Fastener Distribution for over 30 years, in such positions Sales Engineer, Chief Engineer, Manager of Product Marketing, Product Engineering & Quality and Director of Quality & Engineering. He founded GT Technical Consultants where he performs failure analysis, lectures on fastener safety, works for law firms and designs/audits Quality systems. He is a member of SAE, is Vice Chairman of the ASTM F16 Fastener Committee, Chairman of the F16.01 Test Methods Committee and received the ASTM Award of Merit in 2005. Guy can be contacted at 847- 477-5057, Email: ExpertBoltGuy@gmail.com or visit www.BoltFailure.com. WHAT DISTRIBUTORS NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SAE vs ASTM FASTENERS The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has been responsible for developing the mechanical and material requirements for externally threaded fasteners since 1949 in their Standard SAE J429. This is the most common Standard used for automotive, truck, bus and heavy equipment applications. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) was founded in the early 1900’s for standards to the manufacturing industry for steels and other materials and products along with test method standards for meeting quality assurance standards with the products. ASTM fasteners are primarily used in structural applications, piping, ships, bridges and industrial structures and maintenance. There are crossover products with the SAE and there are fastener products not found in the SAE Handbook, such as flat washers and hex head products. It wasn’t until 1974 that the F16 Fastener Committee of ASTM was formed to deal specifically with fasteners. One of the first and biggest contributions to structural buildings was the development of the A325 bolt. Structural fasteners are supplied in diameters beginning with 1/2”, where general fasteners and SAE specifications begin with 1/4” or even smaller. Structural fasteners have a shorter thread length because they are assembled in basic shear applications. Since the weaker threads should never be within the shear plane, a shorter thread length assures against any shear contact between two structural members being on the threads but against the stronger full diameter shank instead. ASTM specifications will also call for heavy hex bolts and heavy hex nuts. In this case, heavy denotes CONTRIBUTOR ARTICLE an increase in the width across the flats of the hexagon shape, which is to support the high assembly stress as structural bolts are frequently assembled into yield and with power wrenches. The ASTM A307 is a low carbon heavy hex steel bolt that is available in two Grades. Grade A is a hex bolt for general use, non-critical applications with a tensile strength of 60,000 psi. The Grade B is a heavy hex bolt used for flanged joints in piping systems using cast iron and has a tensile strength range of 60-100,000 psi. The SAE strength equivalent is close to the Grade 2, but the fasteners are not exactly equal but may be interchanged in non-critical applications. The A325 Type 1 is a heavy hex structural fastener that is usually furnished with a galvanized coating for extreme outdoor service conditions. Type 3 bolts are made of weathering steel to provide atmospheric corrosion resistance. Type 1 fasteners are marked with ‘A325’ but may also have 3 radial lines 120° apart. This is the same strength equivalent and has the same 3 radial line head marking as the SAE Grade 5. However, the ASTM A449 is the exact equivalent of the SAE Grade 5; it specifies the same chemical and material requirements, including the 3 radial grade lines on the head. The dimensions are standard hex cap screw, the same as the SAE product. The ASTM A354 Grade BD fasteners are the strength equivalent to the SAE Grade 8, at 150,000 psi and 120,000 psi yield strength, but with a few exceptions. Of greatest importance, all BD fastener sizes are required to be made from alloy steel. SAE has provisions for the use of non-alloy steels in certain sizes. CONTINUED ON PAGE 132

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