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SUMMER 2020

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Distributor's Link Magazine Summer 2020 / Vol 43 No3

10 THE DISTRIBUTOR’S

10 THE DISTRIBUTOR’S LINK Guy Avellon Guy Avellon has been in MRO and Fastener Distribution for over 30 years, in such positions Sales Engineer, Chief Engineer, Manager of Product Marketing, Product Engineering & Quality and Director of Quality & Engineering. He founded GT Technical Consultants where he performs failure analysis, lectures on fastener safety, works for law firms and designs/audits Quality systems. He is a member of SAE, is Vice Chairman of the ASTM F16 Fastener Committee, Chairman of the F16.01 Test Methods Committee and received the ASTM Award of Merit in 2005. Guy can be contacted at 847- 477-5057, Email: ExpertBoltGuy@gmail.com or visit www.BoltFailure.com. WHAT FASTENER DISTRIBUTORS NEED TO KNOW ABOUT STAINLESS STEELS - PART 1 This series will explain some of the many differences and advantages of several common types of stainless steels sold, their identification markings for inch and metric and installation information. Many times, customers have an idea of what they want but are unaware that there may be a better product for their application. This is where your Value-Added Service becomes valuable. There are hundreds of different types, or alloys, that make up stainless steels. Each is developed to produce its own unique properties for countless different applications. Originally called ‘rust-less’ steel, it is an alloy of a very low carbon steel that contains a minimum of 12% chromium. This alloy has the ability to form a thin, but tenacious film of passive chromium oxide at the surface in the presence of oxygen. This invisible film is what provides the basis for its resistance to atmospheric corrosion and to most oxidizing agents. The film is strong but if it is slightly damaged and is still in the presence of oxygen, the passive coating can repair itself. Stainless steels can still rust in certain environments. If the stainless steel is exposed to aerated water or flowing water where the oxygen is in abundance, then the corrosion potential is passive. If conditions exist where the stainless steel is in stagnant water, exposed to a high chloride content in a crevice and depleted of oxygen, then the stainless steel surface becomes active and anodic. Since iron exists in steel in different crystalline structures, the defining difference is the amount of carbon they can absorb. The higher the amount of carbon, the CONTRIBUTOR ARTICLE harder and more brittle it becomes. Therefore, stainless steels generally contain very low amounts of carbon. Crystals form when molten steel cools through multiple temperature ranges. Austenite is created by heating ferrite to 912ºC (1674ºF), at which point the BCC (Body Centered Cubic) structure transforms into a FCC (Face Centered Cubic) structure which can absorb up to 2% carbon. Austenite retains its structure (stabilizes) from the addition of nickel and manganese. Elements, such as nickel, manganese, copper, molybdenum, columbium, etc. may be added to further increase corrosion and oxidation resistance, increase its tensile strength or enhance its heat resistance. These alloying elements have led to the formation of five main classes of stainless steels; austenitic, martensitic, ferritic, precipitation hardening and duplex steels. AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS are the chromiumnickel, chromium-nickel-manganese based stainless steels. These products are essentially nonmagnetic in the annealed condition. They can be hot worked but will cold work rapidly. Cold working may produce a slight magnetic condition, which can be easily differentiated from a strong magnetic attraction by applying a magnet to the part. The austenitic steels exhibit the best high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance and resistance to heat scaling than the martensitic and ferritic steels. Austenitic stainless steels are also susceptible to intergranular corrosion at temperatures between 425 and 870ºC (800 - 1600ºF) because of carbide precipitation in the grain boundaries. CONTINUED ON PAGE 100

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    advertisers index N NBS CORPORATION

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